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Chronic Kidney Disease - What it is

What do kidneys do? - The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs at the back of the body. Each kidney is attached to the bladder, which is a distensible bag that collects urine. The kidneys make the urine, flowing downwards through two tubes called the ureters, and collects in the bladder. Normal kidney function keep in balance many things in the body by altering the composition of urine they produce.

The functions of the kidneys include:

  • Control the amount of salt and water in the body
  • Get rid of waste products of the body in the urine
  • Enable the body to form adequate red blood cells by producing a hormone called erythropoietin
  • Regulate and maintain the health of bones by making an active form of vitamin D and maintaining the balance of calcium and phosphate in the body
  • Control the acid level in the body as well as many other minerals and salts of the body


What is it? - Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition when the kidneys stop working as well as they should. The kidneys are critical for survival; without them, patients develop multiple problems. These may range from excessive water retention, breathlessness, sleeplessness, poor appetite, and high blood pressure. In chronic kidney disease, the kidneys slowly lose their functions, and in time, the kidney can stop working altogether.

Chronic Kidney Disease - How to prevent?

Chronic Kidney Disease - Preparing for surgery

Chronic Kidney Disease - Post-surgery care

The information provided is not intended as medical advice. Terms of use. Information provided by SingHealth